|scientific name Hylobius pales |
common name Pales Weevil
Pine forests and Christmas tree plantations, especially with recently cut (past 2 years) woods (Dixon & Foltz, 1990).
Emergence March to May (including overwintering adults). Second emergence July to September. (Bullard & Fox, 1969).
Adults dark reddish brown with scattered light colored setae, size ranging from 5.8-11.3mm long (females 7.4-10.3mm) (Dixon & Foltz, 1990). Femora clubbed and scutellum with dense scales (Millers, et al., 1963).
1-4 eggs are laid in niches made on the root collar by females. The larvae undergo 5-6 instars and may cause tree girdling (Nord, et al., 1984). Adults may overwinter at least once in northern climates but spring weevils do not overwinter in the southern range (Bullard & Fox, 1969; Finnegan, 1959), and all stages except egg and young larvae survive. Mating and adult feeding occur at night; days are spent in leaf litter and under logs (Nord, et al., 1984).
Weevils feign death if disturbed and will fall to the ground (Corneil & Wilson, 1984). Adults have been found to move 7m in one night (Corneil & Wilson, 1984), but approximately 7 miles in marked-recapture studies (Bullard & Fox, 1969). Dead trees or stumps are required for oviposition, but living trees are required for adult feeding (Nord, et al., 1984).
Common pest of pines in Eastern Canada and the US (Nord, et al., 1984).
Larvae hosted on Pinus spp. and other conifers, rarely hardwoods (Nord, et al., 1984). Larvae feed on the root collar; adults feed on branches. (Hunt, et al., 1993). Preference shown for Scots and Red pine over Jack pine in adults and for oviposition. Preference for White Pine in the Great Lakes area (Finnegan, 1959).
Found in the eastern United States, Canada, and Puerto Rico. Found to the south in Florida, west as far as Texas & Montana. North into Manitoba and east to New England and Nova Scotia. (O’Brien & Wibmer, 1982).
Commonly co-occurs with Pachylobius picivorus (Germar), Hylobius radicis Boheman, and H. rhizophagus Millers. Causes high seedling mortality (Dixon & Foltz, 1990; Nord, et al., 1984). Increased survival to adulthood was associated with higher levels of nitrogen in phloem (Hunt, et al., 1993).
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