|scientific name Tubulifera |
Dead branches, leaves, flowers, leaf litter or leaf-galls (Mound and Marullo 1996).
Varies with species.
The antennae consist of 4 to 8 segments and when sensoria are present, they are setae-like and on the intermediate segments. The postocular setae are commonly well developed and the maxillary stylets retract deeply into the head. Epimeral sutures may be present on the pronotum, and a basantra is usually present. The mesospinasternum is always fused to the metasternum, the fore tarsi are one segmented and the mid and hind tarsi have one or two segments. When wings are present they lack longitudinal wing veins and microsetae. The fringe cilia, are inserted without sockets into the wing membrane, and are straight and cross when wings are at rest over the abdomen. A pelta is present on abdominal tergite 1, and though abdominal segments lack pleural plates, dorsal sigmoidal wing-holding setae are commonly present. Females have a fustis, and lack a saw-like ovipositor. Abdominal tergite 10 is tubular (Stannard 1968).
This suborder currently consists on one family, the Phlaeothripidae. Some species in this group exhibit male/male fighting, and none are known to be vectors of tospoviruses. Some species in this suborder also display complex patterns of variation within species, between the sexes, as well as between large and small individuals (Moritz et al 2001).
Only a few species in this suborder are known to be pests (Moritz et al 2001).
Approximately half of the species in this suborder feed on fungal hyphae or spores. Most of the other species are phytophagous, and can be found feeding on leaves or flowers. A few species in this suborder are moss feeders, or predatory on mites or scale insects (Kirk 1996).
Most species in this suborder are found in the tropics (Moritz et al 2001).
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